PHRAGMIPEDIUM

PHRAGMIPEDIUM

Phragmipedium

 

Phragmipedium warscewiczianum
 

Genus:

 

Phragmipedium Rolfe, 1896

 

Synonyms
  • Uropedium Lindl.
  • Phragmipedilum Rolfe

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

Phragmipedium is a genus of the Orchid family (Orchidaceae) (Subfamily Cypripedioideae) and the only genus comprised in the tribe Phragmipedieae and subtribe Phragmipediinae. The name of the genus is derived from the Greek phragma, which means "division", and pedium, which means "slipper" (referring to the pouch). It is abbreviated 'Phrag' in trade journals. [clarification needed]

About 20 species of these lady's slipper orchids are known from SW Mexico, Central and tropical South America.[1]

All members of the genus Phragmipedium are listed in Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES).

 

Taxonomy

The genus Phragmipedium is divided into several sections :

  • Phragmipedium : P. caudatum, P. exstaminodium, P. lindenii
  • Himantopetalum : P. caricinum, P. christiansenianum, P. pearcei, P. klotzscheanum, P. richteri, P. tetzlaffianum.
  • Platypetalum : P. lindleyanum
  • Lorifolia : P. boissierianum, P. hirtzii, P. longifolium, P. vittatum
  • Micropetalum : P. besseae, P. besseae var. dalessandroi, P. fischeri, P. kovachii, P. schlimii.
  • Schluckebieria : P. kovachii

The exact number of species is still being discussed among specialists : O. Gruss recognizes 20 species, compared to the 15 species accepted by Lucile M. McCook (see References).

Most Phragmipedium species are either terrestrial, epiphytic or lithophytic in habit. They show a unique shieldlike staminode, long, moustache-like petals and a 3-locular ovary. The large pouchlike lip is curved inwards at the margins. The acute leaves attain a length of about 80 cm. The stem lacks pseudobulbs and grows about 80 cm high, showing 2 to 3 flowers.

Phragmipedium besseae was first found in Peru by Elizabeth Locke Besse in 1981. Soon afterwards, the site was plundered and destroyed by orchid hunters. Luckily enough seed was preserved, to avert extinction. This orchid is unusual, because its flowers have a bright orange-red to almost strong salmon-red color (there is also a yellow variety), unseen in any lady's slipper orchid. The oval-shaped petals are wide. The narrow leaves are elliptic in shape. It has since been used extensively in hybridization.

Phragmipedium caudatum is considered a complex, i.e. it could contain several species or subspecies, based on differences in flower size and color. This orchid with a short stem is semi-terrestrial, semi-lithophytic to epiphytic, depending on the substrate . The cream-colored flowers are laced with greenish stripes. The lateral spiraling, drooping petals are red-tinted and very long, even reaching the soil. They grow on wet, moss-covered hillsides.

Phragmipedium lindleyanum, named after John Lindley, forms a rosette of five long linear leaves with a yellow margin, reaching a length of 50 cm. The erect raceme can grow as high as 1 m. It is many-flowered and sometimes branched at the basis. The flowers open in succession, giving the orchid a long blooming period. The hoary flowers are green with brown veins. The glabrous, pouchlike lip is yellow, with red veins.

Phragmipedium longifolium, described in 1852 by H.G. Reichenbach f. and J. v. Warscewicz, has long laceolate leaves without yellow margin, growing to a length of 60 cm. The inflorescence reaches a length of 1 m, with about 10 flowers, opening in succession. The long lateral petals are purplish green. The rather small glabrous labellum has a green color.

Allied genera include Paphiopedilum, Selenipedium, Cypripedium and the monotypic Mexipedium.

There are many interspecific hybrids. Rare crossings have been made between Phragmipedium and Paphiopedilum.

 

Synonymy

The genus Uropedium Lindl. is generally included in Phragmipedium.

 

Species

Notes

  • Albert, V.Z. & B.Pettersson, Expansion of Genus Paphiopedilum Pfitzer to Include All Conduplicate-leaved Slipper Orchids (Cypripedioideae: Orchidaceae). Lindleyana 9(2) 133-139 (1994).
  • McCook, L. An Annotated Checklist of the Genus Phragmipedium - 28 p. - Special Publication of the Orchid Digest (1998).
  • Gruss, O. 2003. A checklist of the genus Phragmipedium. Orchid Digest 67: 213-241.
  • Braem, G. J., Ohlund, S., and Quene, R. J. 2004. The real Phragmipedium warszewiczianum: a clarification of the Phragmipedium caudatum complex (Phragmipedium section Phragmipedium). Orquideologia 23(2): 87-136
  • Pridgeon, A.M.; Cribb, P.J.; Chase, M.W. & F. N. Rasmussen (1999): Genera Orchidacearum Vol.1, Oxford U. Press. ISBN 0-19-850513-2

 

The Phragmipedium is commonly known as the South American Slipper orchid and is frequently called Phrag (frag) for short. These are terrestrial growing orchids native to areas of Mexico, Central and South America. These orchids are incredibly easy to culture in the home and often have a blooming period of six months or more. A distinct feature about Phrags is that they produce their blooms sequentially, one after another, after another. Each bloom remains in flower for approximately two weeks while another bud develops. When it is time for the flower to expire, it falls from the stem while still looking nearly perfect. Do not despair, this is common. Once the flowering stem is completely finished producing flowers it will start to turn brown and begin to die back. It then can be removed by cutting it off at the point where it had emerged from the leaf. During the period when the plant was producing flowers, another growth was developing and that is where the next flowering stem will emerge. It is not uncommon to see an adult Phrag produce blooms continually for many months.

Saturday, 17 October 2015 03:11

Phragmipedilum Jerry Lee Fischer

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(besseae x Incan Treasure)

LIGHT
partial to full shade
WATER
allow to dry between watering
HUMIDITY
50% is optimum
TEMPERATURE
BLOOM SEASON
blooms Summer into Fall

 

Incan Treasure (kovachii x longifolium) did not have a very desirable flower shape, but its size was massive. Crossed onto besseae 'Rob's Choice' 4N, the flower shape drastically improved and created a flower that looks like a huge Don Wimber. This is really one of the most interesting flowers we have produced with a kovachii background.  Perhaps one of the best kovachii hybrids to date as of 09/04/2015. 

 

Patti T. earned 1st Place at the 2015 October meeting of the NVOS.

Friday, 18 September 2015 16:39

Phragmipedium Culture and Potting Medium Recipe

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Phragmipediums are found in Mexico through South America. Most of the species of this group grow in a terrestrial manner. This may be either loose, forest litter or light, friable soils rich in organic matter. Plants can be found in light dappled shade to sometimes full sun. Rainfall is plentiful in these areas giving way to the common belief that the Phragmipediums should be grown wet. The Phragmipediums can be broken into two major groups. The first group consists of plants that are of an older type of hybridizing using species such as Phrag. caudatum, Phrag. sargentianum, and Phrag. longifolium. The second group consists of Phrag. besseae and Phrag. schlimi. These two groups are considered the “dry group” and the “wet group". Two distinct potting mediums are necessary to grow these different groups.

Friday, 18 September 2015 16:40

Culture of Phragmipedium Hybrids

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Phragmipedium Orchids (Phrags for short) are my favorite group of Slipper Orchids. There are some 20 or so species of Phragmipedium, which come from Central and South America. They form a group of Slipper Orchids, distinct from the Asiatic Paphiopedilum (Paphs) and the north temperate Cypripedium (Cyps). I felt the need to write this because the older literature generally makes the mistake of lumping Phrags with Paphs in their discussions of cultural techniques. The Phragmipedium are very different in cultural requirements from the Paphs, and really need to be treated differently. I believe the Phragmipedium hybrids are the easiest group of Slipper Orchids to grow in the home. They grow a lot faster than Paphs and are much more forgiving of less than ideal conditions. Hybrid Phrags have great vigor, and when happy can grow incredibly fast and bloom year round. You can't ask for an easier group of orchids to grow. Phrag species are not generally difficult to grow, but I want to emphasize that the hybrids are even easier to grow. These culture tips are pointed more at letting you know what you can get away with while also pointing you toward the ideal cultural practices. 

Monday, 14 December 2015 19:52

Phragmipedium Sergeant Eric

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(Eric Young x sargentianum)

LIGHT
moderate to bright light
WATER
allow to dry between watering
HUMIDITY
50% is optimum
TEMPERATURE
BLOOM SEASON
blooms in February

 

 

Patti T. earned 3rd place at the June 2015, NVOS "Show and Tell".

 

Friday, 18 September 2015 16:43

Phragmipedium Culture

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Phragmipediums are New World ladyslipper orchids that grow from Mexico through central South America. Most are terrestrial (grow in the ground) or lithophytic (grow on rocks), but a few species can sometimes be epiphytic (grow on trees). The tree dwellers are primarily the long-petaled caudatum types. Some species prefer to grow in the splash zone of waterfalls and on streambanks and can often be submerged during periods of heavy rain. These streams and waterfall dwellers include the species caricinum, kaieteurum, klotzschianum, lindleyanum, longifolium, pearcei, and sargentianum. Phrags flower at various times but most heavily in the late winter and spring. Mature plants of many sequential-blooming species can be in bloom for six months or more.

Phragmipediums are other types of slipper orchids, but these hail from Central and South America. These relatives of the Asian slipper orchids are indigenous to the mountainous areas in Peru, Ecuador, Columbia, Bolivia, Brazil, and as far north as southern Mexico. This genus was founded in 1896 when botanist Robert Rolfe separated these orchids from Cypripediums, another slipper orchid genus. The name of the genus is derived from the Greek phragma, which means “division”, and pedium, which means “slipper” (referring to the pouch). It is abbreviated Phrag in trade journals.

Friday, 18 September 2015 17:31

Phragmipedium (Wikipedia)

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Phragmipedium is a genus of the Orchid family (Orchidaceae) (Subfamily Cypripedioideae) and the only genus comprised in the tribe Phragmipedieae and subtribe Phragmipediinae. The name of the genus is derived from the Greek phragma, which means "division", and pedium, which means "slipper" (referring to the pouch). It is abbreviated 'Phrag' in trade journals.

About 20 species of these lady's slipper orchids are known from SW Mexico, Central and tropical South America.[1]

All members of the genus Phragmipedium are listed in Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES).

Wednesday, 16 September 2015 18:53

Phragmipedilum Fireworks

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(pearcei x Grande)

LIGHT
bright, indirect light for bloom-sized plants
WATER
do not allow medium to dry out between waterings
HUMIDITY
70% is optimum, air movement is a must
TEMPERATURE
warm / moderate tolerant
BLOOM SEASON
blooms in fall

 

 
It is advised to use filtered or ‘reverse osmosis’ water to prevent brown tips from forming on the leaves. Bottled water or even water that is allowed to sit for a day before use can suffice. It has been discovered that water containing excess chlorine is especially bad for these sensitive plants.
 
Like Phalaenopsis, do not allow water to sit in the crown of the leaves overnight or on cloudy days.
 
Good air movement is very important.
More intense the light, with air movement, the more intense the bloom colors while cooler night temperatures will give better red color development in the flowers.
 
Patti T. earned 1st Place at the 2015 September meeting of the NVOS with her Phragmipedilum Fireworks (3N) (Grande 'Piping Rock' (4N) x pearcei 'Jenna').
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