CATASETINAE

CATASETINAE (1)

The Catasetinae

Pronunciation: kloh-WES-e-ah

Tribe: Cymbidieae

Subtribe: Catasetinae

 

The genus Clowesia was published by John Lindley based on Clowesia rosea in 1848. Reichenbach transferred the species to Catasetum in 1872 and so it remained until 1975. At that time C. H. Dodson published his revision in which he removed from Catasetum, eight species that bore bisexual or perfect flowers. He resurrected the genus Clowesia with Clowesia rosea as its type from the original description and transferred 4 other species from Catasetum to Clowesia. The remaining three species from Catasetum with perfect or bisexual flowers were placed in the newly established genus Dressleria. Clowesia are found at altitudes ranging from 200 to 1500 meters. It is an epiphytic genus of sympodial orchids that are found in warm, moist open canopy tropical trees, except Clowesia glaucoglossa found in one particular species of palm in one small area of southwest Mexico. Pseudobulbs are somewhat fusiform to conical in shape with thin veined leaves during the growth season. Like Catasetum and Cycnoches, the bulbs grow to maturity in 6 to 7 months and lose their leaves in a rest period. Some of the species bloom on new maturing growths, while others such as Clowesia rosea bloom from completely leafless pseudobulbs. The inflorescences emerge from the base of the pseudobulbs and are sharply pendent unlike the more arching, pendant inflorescences of Catasetum. There are two particularly beautiful and fragrant hybrids, Clowesia (Catasetum) Grace Dunn and Clowesia (Catasetum) Rebecca Northen. Because the International Orchid Registration Authority and the RHS do not recognize the genus Clowesia as valid, all Clowesia species and hybrids are still listed as Catasetum. The American Orchid Society judging system accepts Clowesia as a valid genus for species, so awards are now listed as Clowesia although the older awards are still listed under Catasetum. Because of the rules of registration, the A.O.S still lists the many Clowesia hybrids under Catasetum or the intergeneric hybrids using Catasetum. For example a hybrid of Clowesia and Cycnoches would be registered as Catanoches.

 

Number of species:

The World Monocot Checklist contains 8 accepted names (9/2007).

 

Distribution:

Mexico, 5 species; one species, Clowesia warscewiczii, from Central America to Ecuador and Venezuela, one species Clowesia amazonica from the Brazilian Amazon and Ecuador

 

Basic Culture (Individual orchids might require more or less of any of these conditions, refer to the specific orchid for more details)

 

Temperature:

Warm, although while resting can take quite cool temperatures almost to freezing.

Light:

Bright open shade with good air movement

Water-Humidity:

During the growth period, maintain even moisture, high humidity and good air movement. After the bulbs mature, moisture can be reduced or stopped completely. While at rest, if the bulbs appear to be shriveling, you can lightly spray them. When the new growth appears and roots have formed, you may repot and begin to water and fertilize again. Like Catasetum and Cycnoches, the worst enemy of Clowesia are spider mites that come with hot, dry conditions with poor air circulation while the plants are in growth.

Fertilizer:

Use balanced or high nitrogen fertilizer while the plants are in growth. My remarks about fertilizing Cycnoches can be applied to Clowesia also.

Potting:

Sphagnum in clay pots; medium-fine bark in clay or plastic pots; mounted in baskets or on tree fern, cork or driftwood with sphagnum at the roots. Hanging the pots or mounts is best because of the good air circulation this provides

 

Source: http://www.aos.org/orchids/orchids-a-to-z/letter-c/clowesia.aspx

 

Hybrid orchids are preferred over species for beginners to orchid culture. Species orchids are less tolerant of unfavorable conditions and unintentional neglect. Hybrid orchids are more forgiving and take advantage of traits from two or more species or other combinations of parents. These traits also include diverse growing conditions as well as spectacular blooms.

 

Additional Information

https://catasetinaecanada.weebly.com/clowesia-cl---natural.html

 

 

Below are details on individual orchids. This listing does not include all 8 recognized Clowesia species (The World Monocot Checklist). Orchids below are parents of hybrids that I am familiar with or awarded orchids from the Napa Valley Orchid Society Annual Show or the monthly Show and Tell winners.

 

Navigation Tip: Click on the name of an orchid (Bold Text) that you wish to explore further.

 

Enjoy browsing the Orchids

CATASETUM (33)

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The Wonderful World of the Catasetum

 

 

Pronunciation:     kat-ah-SEE-tum

From the Greek kata (down) and Latin seta ( bristle)

Tribe: Cymdibieae

Subtribe: Catasetinae

 

Catasetum is the largest genus of the subtribe and grows in a variety of conditions. Many grow in the warm, moist open canopy of trees but there are a number that are happiest in the "boot" of palm trees. The boot of the palm trees is the base of old leaves that have been shed. Some species can be found on rocks, terrestrially and even in sand. Most of the Catasetum species are like Cycnoches in growth pattern. The new growths rapidly develop in a five to six month period, bloom, loose their leaves and are dormant for periods from one to five months depending on the species and the climatic conditions of their habitat. Another feature that Catasetum species share with Cycnoches is that they bear separate male and female flowers with occasional intermediate or hermaphroditic forms. The female flowers of all the many species of Catasetum are very similar in shape. It is almost impossible to determine the species from female flowers. The female flowers are non-resupinate with a galeate or hood-shaped lip that is uppermost. The column inside the lower portion of the lip is short and broad with the stigma located inside the tip of the column. The male flowers of Catasetum are highly variable among the many species. There are at least 12 to 15 different basic shapes ranging from non-resupinate male flowers such as Ctsm. macrocarpum to the resupinate Ctsm cristatum/barbatum group with lips that bear varying numbers and shapes of projections. The inflorescences originate from the base of the pseudobulbs ranging from arched to smoothly pendent. The pseudobulbs are generally fusiform with a variable number of nodes, from which new growths can originate. The early confusion among the varying sexual and floral forms led to the description of several different genera that were united into Catasetum around the middle of the 19th century. Also see Clowesia and Dressleria

 

Number of species:

The World Checklist of Monocotyledons recognizes 64 species and 9 natural hybrids (2007).

 

Distribution:

Central Pacific coast of Mexico to Paraguay and northern Argentina.

 

---  B A S I C   C U L T U R E  ---

 

Temperature:

Warm.

Light:

Bright open shade with very good air movement to full sun

Water-Humidity:

During the period the plants are in growth, maintain even moisture and high humidity. Once the plants have flowered, water can be reduced or stopped completely until new growth develops enough to produce new roots. As with Cycnoches, spider mites are the main enemy of Catasetum and they are brought on by hot dry conditions with little air movement. Maintain good moisture, high humidity and good air movement while the plants are in growth.

Fertilizer:

Use balanced or high nitrogen fertilizer while the plants are in growth. As with the other Catasetinae, I believe it is impossible to over-fertilize as long as the plants are copiously watered, given high light and strong air movement. See Cycnoches for my personal formula.

Potting:

Sphagnum in clay ports, medium-fine firbark in clay or plastic pots or baskets; mounted on tree fern, cork or driftwood with sphagnum at the base for moisture. Hanging the pots or mounts is best because it provides good air movement around the plants. Remember that mounted, plants will require more frequent watering - two or more time per day in the hottest season. A good compromise is to place the plants in pots that are suspended. This offers advantages of both pots and mounts.

 

 

 

Catasetum fimbriatum

©2009 Greg Allikas

Catasetum integerrimum

©2009 Greg Allikas

Catasetum barbatum

'Sunset Valley Orchids HCC/AOS

©2009 Charles Rowden 

   

Catasetum hillsii 'Losgar' CHM/AOS

©2009 Dan Backhaus 

Catasetum pileatum

©2009 Greg Allikas

Catasetum denticulatum

'Sunset Valley Orchids II' AM/AOS

©2009 Charles Rowden 

 

http://www.aos.org/orchids/orchids-a-to-z/letter-c/catasetum.aspx

 

 

Catasetum / Culture

 

General information on the growing of Catasetums can be found here. Information specific to species and hybrid Catasetums can be found following the appropriate links below. Culture sheets are meant as a guide. The ultimate source for the proper care of any orchid is frequent observation of the actual orchid and the correct interpretation of what it is telling you.

 

 

Catasetum / Hybrids

 

Hybrid orchids are the result of an experienced grower controlling the breeding of two orchids that result in a hybrid orchid with traits from both parent orchids (a combination of two species or a mix of a species and a hybrid). These traits can include determining the overall size of the new orchid, appearance of the bloom, and growing conditions. Hybrid orchids are generally easier to care for. Hybrid orchids might also include more dramatic and longer lasting blooms.

 

 

Catasetum / Species

 

In the orchid world, "species" are those orchids that occur naturally in nature. Depending who you ask, the blooms of a species is better, the same or not as dramatic as the bloom of a hybdrid orchid. Most species orchids are less forgiving in a growing area they are not accustomed to and the result will be disappointing (specially for the orchid). Understanding the cultivation needs of species orchids will serve as a guide for the care of a hybrid that includes that particular species in its background.

CLOWESIA (4)

Clowesia

Pronunciation:   kloh-WES-e-ah 

Tribe: Cymbidieae

Subtribe: Catasetinae

 

The genus Clowesia was published by John Lindley based on Clowesia rosea in 1848. Reichenbach transferred the species to Catasetum in 1872 and so it remained until 1975. At that time C. H. Dodson published his revision in which he removed from Catasetum, eight species that bore bisexual or perfect flowers. He resurrected the genus Clowesia with Clowesia rosea as its type from the original description and transferred 4 other species from Catasetum to Clowesia. The remaining three species from Catasetum with perfect or bisexual flowers were placed in the newly established genus Dressleria. Clowesia are found at altitudes ranging from 200 to 1500 meters. It is an epiphytic genus of sympodial orchids that are found in warm, moist open canopy tropical trees, except Clowesia glaucoglossa found in one particular species of palm in one small area of southwest Mexico. Pseudobulbs are somewhat fusiform to conical in shape with thin veined leaves during the growth season. Like Catasetum and Cycnoches, the bulbs grow to maturity in 6 to 7 months and lose their leaves in a rest period. Some of the species bloom on new maturing growths, while others such as Clowesia rosea bloom from completely leafless pseudobulbs. The inflorescences emerge from the base of the pseudobulbs and are sharply pendent unlike the more arching, pendant inflorescences of Catasetum. There are two particularly beautiful and fragrant hybrids, Clowesia (Catasetum) Grace Dunn and Clowesia (Catasetum) Rebecca Northen. Because the International Orchid Registration Authority and the RHS do not recognize the genus Clowesia as valid, all Clowesia species and hybrids are still listed as Catasetum. The American Orchid Society judging system accepts Clowesia as a valid genus for species, so awards are now listed as Clowesia although the older awards are still listed under Catasetum. Because of the rules of registration, the A.O.S still lists the many Clowesia hybrids under Catasetum or the intergeneric hybrids using Catasetum. For example a hybrid of Clowesia and Cycnoches would be registered as Catanoches.

 

Number of species:

The World Monocot Checklist contains 8 accepted names (9/2007).

 

Distribution:

Mexico, 5 species; one species, Clowesia warscewiczii, from Central America to Ecuador and Venezuela, one species Clowesia amazonica from the Brazilian Amazon and Ecuador

 

Basic Culture    (Individual orchids might require more or less of any of these conditions, refer to the specific orchid for more details)

 

Temperature:

Warm, although while resting can take quite cool temperatures almost to freezing.

Light:

Bright open shade with good air movement

Water-Humidity:

During the growth period, maintain even moisture, high humidity and good air movement. After the bulbs mature, moisture can be reduced or stopped completely. While at rest, if the bulbs appear to be shriveling, you can lightly spray them. When the new growth appears and roots have formed, you may repot and begin to water and fertilize again. Like Catasetum and Cycnoches, the worst enemy of Clowesia are spider mites that come with hot, dry conditions with poor air circulation while the plants are in growth.

Fertilizer:

Use balanced or high nitrogen fertilizer while the plants are in growth. My remarks about fertilizing Cycnoches can be applied to Clowesia also.

Potting:

Sphagnum in clay pots; medium-fine bark in clay or plastic pots; mounted in baskets or on tree fern, cork or driftwood with sphagnum at the roots. Hanging the pots or mounts is best because of the good air circulation this provides

 

Source:  http://www.aos.org/orchids/orchids-a-to-z/letter-c/clowesia.aspx

 

Hybrid orchids are preferred over species for beginners to orchid culture.  Species orchids are less tolerant of unfavorable conditions and unintentional neglect.  Hybrid orchids are more forgiving and take advantage of traits from two or more species or other combinations of parents.  These traits also include diverse growing conditions as well as spectacular blooms.

 

Additional Information

https://catasetinaecanada.weebly.com/clowesia-cl---natural.html

 

 

Below are details on individual orchids.  This listing does not include all 8 recognized Clowesia species (The World Monocot Checklist).  Orchids below are parents of hybrids that  I am familiar with or awarded  orchids from the Napa Valley Orchid Society Annual Show or the monthly Show and Tell winners.

 

Navigation Tip:  Click on the name of an orchid (Bold Text) that you wish to explore further.

CYCNODES (1)

Cycnodes (Cycnoches x Mormodes)

 

Cycnodes is another artificial genus produced by breeding Cycnoches but this time with Mormodes. This group of orchids is again an interesting breeding combination producing multiple flowers, vigorous growth and the possibility of flowering two to three times a year. Typically, their now trigger-less flowers have a flower life that is longer than for pure Catasetums.
 

Cycnodes are heavy feeders during their growing period but a dry rest period of differing lengths according to species is needed after flowering, specifically, once the plants start to drop leaves. Water is gradually reduced, then withheld. If at all, water sparingly only to prevent pseudobulbs from shrinking too much. Once new growth reaches 4 inches and new roots reach 2 or more inches long, watering is begun, with normal abundant watering taking place once the potting mix again approaches dryness. Fertilize well during the active growing season as the plant does not get a chance to be fertilized during its dry rest period. Cycnodes like humidity of 50-70% with warm day temperatures of 75-80 F (24-27 C) dropping 10-15 F (6-8 C) at night. Repot just as new growth is beginning at the end of the dry rest.
 
 
Cycnodes hybrids (Cycnoches x Mormodes). Interestingly the Mormodes is dominant for color and recessive for form and the Cycnoches is dominant for form and recessive for color. This type of breeding is remarkable in that these primary hybrids get the best qualities of both parents. Cycnodes hybrids have been proven a reliable combination giving excellent results.

FREDCLARKEARA (9)

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Fredclarkeara (Catasetum x Clowesia x Mormodes)

 
Fredclarkeara is another artificial genus produced by breeding Catasetum, Clowesia and Mormodes, a three way cross. This group of orchids is again an interesting breeding combination producing multiple flowers, vigorous growth and the possibility of flowering three to four times a year. Typically, their now trigger-less flowers have a flower life that is longer than for pure Catasetums, some up to 6 weeks.
 
When hybridizing between three genera, the work is more difficult with lower success rate in germination. Fredclarkeara are heavy feeders during their growing period but a dry rest period of differing lengths according to species is needed after flowering, specifically, once the plants start to drop leaves. Water is gradually reduced, then withheld. If at all, water sparingly only to prevent pseudobulbs from shrinking too much. Once new growth reaches 4 inches and new roots reach 2 or more inches long, watering is begun, with normal abundant watering taking place once the potting mix again approaches dryness. Fertilize well during the active growing season as the plant does not get a chance to be fertilized during its dry rest period. Fredclarkeara like humidity of 50-70% with warm day temperatures of 75-80 F (24-27 C) dropping 10-15 F (6-8 C) at night. Repot just as new growth is beginning at the end of the dry rest.
 
Breedings that will produce the Genus Fredclarkeara
 
Catamodes x Clowesia
Catamodes x Clowesetum
Catamodes x Mormodia
Clowesetum x Catamodes
Clowesetum x Mormodes
Clowesetum x Mormodia
Mormodia x Catamodes
Mormodia x Catasetum
Mormodia x Clowesetum
 
 
 
Navigation Tip:  Click on the name of the following orchids (bold text) to reveal it's individual page for more information
 
 

General Information (0)

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Welcome to the Catasetinae

 

Catasetinae is a subtribe within the Orchidaceae and contains 8 genera. Its members are widespread in lowland tropical Central and South America up to 1,500 meters. They are found on trees, stumps or old fence posts.

Catasetinae are exclusively pollinated by male euglossine bees (aka 'orchid bee'), which are attracted to the floral fragrances, and collect them. A particular Catasetinae species may attract only one or a few species of bees from the dozens that occur in the habitat.

 

Genera

  • Catasetum (80-120 species)
  • Clowesia (7 species)
  • Cyanaeorchis (3 species)
  • Cycnoches (some 30 species)
  • Dressleria (10 species)
  • Galeandra (37 species)
  • Grobya (5 species)
  • Mormodes (some 70 species)

 

The related genus Cyrtopodium is separated as subtribe Cyrtopodiinae.   ttps://www.revolvy.com/page/Catasetinae

 

 

The American Orchid Society recognizes the following inter-genetic hybrids:   (https://catasetinaecanada.weebly.com)

  • Catamodes   (cross of Catasetum and Mormodes)
  • Catanoches   (cross of Catasetum and Cycnoches)
  • Cloughara   (cross of Catasetum, Clowesia and Cycnoches)
  • Clowesetum   (cross of Catasetum and Clowesia)
  • Cyclodes   (cross of Clowesia, Cycnoches and Mormodes)
  • Cycnodes   (Cycnoches and Mormodes)
  • Fredclarkeara   (cross of Catasetum, Clowesia and Mormodes) 
  • Georgecarrara   (cross of Catasetum, Clowesia, Cycnoches and Mormodes)
  • Monnierara   (cross of Catasetum, Cycnoches and Mormodes)
  • Mormodia   (cross of Clowesia and Mormodes) 

 

 

The following is from Sunset Valley Orchids

Catasetinae Plant Culture
Cycnoches, Catasetums, Mormodes, and Clowesia

 

The cultural information below is a generalization and will apply in most situations; however each grower and growing environment is different. I encourage you to make adjustments based on your own experience and growing conditions.

Catasetinae have a distinctive growth and rest period (dormancy). For best plant growth it is important to understand and respect these growth phases. When the plants are in active growth maintain constant root zone moisture and fertilize regularly. This is essential to optimizing the development of new growth. When the plants are dormant little or no water is needed as the pseudobulbs store enough moisture and nutrients to survive the dormancy.

Catasetinae plant culture is not difficult. All it takes is an understanding of the seasonal growth patterns. The plants' vegetative state signals to the grower their changing needs. Interpret the signals and make the appropriate cultural adjustments. Here is what to look for:

 

Early spring:
Catasetinae begin their new growth in early spring. However, watering should wait until the new growth has well-developed new roots. This means you should let the new roots grow to an approximate length of 3-5” before you begin watering. Let me emphasize this point. Wait to water until the new roots are welldeveloped. The waiting to water is not easy; my natural instinct is to begin watering when I see new growth, but I have learned through trial and error that it is better to wait to water than start watering too soon. I also believe that Catasetinae roots deteriorate during dormancy, and in the following year they are not as effective at taking up moisture and nutrients. This makes the new roots vital in the plants' health. This reinforces the message about not watering too early.

Mid-Season:
Once the new roots are sufficiently developed, this is the period where the plants are rapidly developing their new pseudobulbs. There is a surprising amount of growth that occurs in these 3-4 months; often the plants will double their size. Due to this, the plants require constant moisture and regular fertilization. In most cases, irrigation will be needed 2 or 3 times a week. A balanced fertilizer at full strength is suitable for this rapid growth. Light levels at or above those suggested for Cattleya will help insure strong good growth and flowering. This is the time when the fruits of your labor will begin to pay off as the flowering season is in underway.

Late Season:
Sometime after flowering, in the late autumn the plants will begin to enter the dormancy phase. Understanding the signals of the onset of dormancy and the factors triggering it are important to a healthy plant culture. The plant's first signals are the yellowing and browning off of the leaves, at this time stop fertilizing and reduce watering by one-half and when most leaves are yellow/brown and have dropped off cease watering altogether. The general rule to follow is: by the 15 th of November stop fertilization and reduce watering by one-half. Most leaves should have yellowed or fallen off by the 1 st of January. However, if the plants still have leaves all irrigation should be stopped at this time.

The onset of dormancy is caused by several factors; the maturity of the pseudobulb, shorter day length, cooler day/night temperatures, and a reduction of root zone moisture. In most of the country dormancy occurs naturally; however when the plants are cultivated in warm growing areas such as in South Texas, Florida, Hawaii, or in the home or under lights sometimes dormancy needs to be encouraged. I have found that stopping watering in early January regardless of the number of green leaves will trigger the dormancy.

Note: Watering during dormancy should only be done it the plant shrivels severely. Usually a single irrigation is sufficient to restore the bulbs.

Here's a summary:

  • As the new growth develops wait to irrigate until the new roots are well-developed and are 3 to 5” long. (Don't be in a hurry to water; it is better to wait)
  • Irrigate and fertilize frequently while the plants are in active growth.
  • Stop fertilization and reduce irrigation by one-half around by mid November.
  • Cease watering by the 1 st of January.

 

Light levels: Catasetinae like light levels comparable to Cattleyas at about 2500-4000 foot candles (fc) However, the plants are widely adaptable and do well with light levels as low as 1500 fc and as high as 5000 fc. For optimal growth I suggest a Southern exposure or a location where all the plants will receive plenty of bright, filtered light

Potting mix: For mature plants I have been using a 3:1 of mix of fine ‘Kiwi Bark’ and medium Perlite. For seedlings up to a 3” pot size I like to use New Zealand sphagnum moss with the bottom 1/3 of the pot filled with Styrofoam peanuts. However, this genus is not too particular in what it is potted in, and any well drained media will work well.

Containers: I prefer to grow in plastic pots; however clay pots, baskets, and cork slabs will all work. Catasetinae don't like to be over potted; select a pot size that will allow for 2-3 years of growth.

Fertilizer: When in active growth, regularly use one teaspoon of your favorite fertilizer per gallon of water.

Air movement: Catasetinae enjoy abundant air movement. If you are growing in a green house use air circulating fans. Also, hanging the plants allows for maximum air movement around them and often they do best hanging.

Repotting and Dividing: Is done as the new growth is just starting to develop and before the new roots start to show. (Remember no watering until the roots are well established, 3-5” long). Unlike most orchid plants Catasetinae do well when divided in to 2 bulb pieces. Divisions are made by cutting with a sterile tool or by pulling the bulbs apart. I try to keep the size of my plants between 2 and 5 bulbs.

Insect pests: Catasetinae are generally pest free. However spider mites are attracted to the soft leaves of these plants. Spider mites are quite small.They live and feed on the undersides of the leaves. Take care in checking for them as the plants are developing the new leaves and control them with a recommended mitcide from your garden center. Although the leaves will drop off during dormancy this is not an excuse to not treat for them.

Please feel free to contact me on any question regarding the growing of this genus. Once the basics are understood they are very rewarding.

[ fred.clarke@worldnet.att.net ]

 

http://www.sunsetvalleyorchids.com/htm/culture_catasetinae.html

 

 

 

My General Observations and Discussions of Growing Catasetinaes

 

A collection of notes based on my experience of growing various Catasetinaes.

 

 

For further exploration, see the following;

 

http://catasetinae.com/

http://www.aos.org/AOS/media/Content-Images/PDFs/catasetums.pdf

Catasetinae Plant Culture, Secrets of Success for Growing Cychnoches, Catasetum, Mormodess and Clowesia.  by Fred Clarke

 

https://staugorchidsociety.org/PDF/CatasetumsbySueBottom.pdf

St. Augustine Orchid Society,  Catasetums and Their Kin. by Sue Bottom

 

https://catasetinaecanada.weebly.com/

http://catasetinae5.blogspot.com/p/introduction-to-catasetinae.html

https://www.cloudsorchids.com/cctsm.htm

http://herebutnot.com/care-growing-catasetinae-dry-climates/

Care & Growing Catasetinae in Dry Climates

 

https://www.orchidmall.com/general/catasetm.htm

https://staugorchidsociety.org/PDF/MyFavoriteOrchidBottom.pdf

 

MORMODES (5)

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The Phantom Resembling Mormodes

 

Pronunciation:

more-MO-dez

Tribe:

Cymbidieae

Subtribe:

Catasetinae

Mormodes is an epiphytic genus ranging from sea level to 800 meters that seems to favor dead or rotting branches. This leads to many plants being found growing on the ground when the limbs break. The name of the genus comes from two Greek words that mean “phantom” and “resembling”. They are frequently called “goblin orchids” in English. Their name is based on the very strange lip shape and the relationship of the column to the lip. The lip is frequently reflexed in two or three sections with the column twisted to one side with the back resting on the lip. Mormodes are usually considered to bear perfect or bisexual flowers with both pollen and a stigma in the column. Like Clowesia and Dressleria, however, the stigma will not accept fertilization until the pollen has been removed. After the pollen is removed, the column straightens and raises back from the column to expose the stigma for pollination. A vegetative feature that distinguishes Mormodes from the other Catasetinae is that the inflorescences generally originate from the middle or lower nodes of the pseudobulbs. Another difference from the other Catasetinae is that the inflorescences of Mormodes project straight out or upward from the pseudobulb. There is less published information about Mormodes than about the other Catasetinae. In a subtribe that abounds with strange features, Mormodes may be the strangest of all. Some Mormodes species produce different types of flowers referred to as female-dominant, male-dominant and normal hermaphroditic or bisexual flowers. This variation in flower shapes and sizes on the same species has confused the identification of many species. There are also indications that a few species do produce on occasion small male flowers with only pollen and a vestigial stigma. The so-called female-dominate flowers are larger and heavier than the male-dominant or normal bisexual flowers. Although the flower has pollen, it probably would function well only as the recipient of pollen from another flower. Mormodes sinuata, M. rolfeanum, M. variabilis, Mormodes revolutum, and the newer species described from Brazil are among species readily available in cultivation. The red species of Mormodes make them popular in intergeneric hybridization. The most highly awarded among this group is Cycnodes Wine Delight.

Number of species: The World Monocot Checklist contains 81 accepted names (9/2007).

Distribution: Mexico to Brazil and Bolivia

 

Basic Culture

 

Temperature:

Warm to intermediate

Light:

Bright open shade with good air movement

Water-Humidity:

Like Catasetum, Clowesia and Cycnoches, mormodes are seasonal growers whose new pseudobulbs develop and mature in a six to seven month period. When the bulb has matured, it flowers and then the leaves are normally dropped and the plants rest for one to four months before starting growth again. While in growth, water heavily and maintain high humidity. After maturity, watering should be reduced or withheld until new growth begins. Spider mites are a common enemy in hot dry conditions while the plants are in growth. While at rest, the bulbs should be watched and if they start to shrivel, spray them very lightly.

Fertilizer:

Use balanced or high nitrogen fertilizer while the plants are in full growth as for Catasetum, Clowesia and Cycnoches. See the section on fertilizing in Cycnoches.

Potting:

Sphagnum in clay pots; medium-fine fir bark in clay or plastic pots; mounted with sphagnum at the roots on tree fern, cork, driftwood or in baskets. Remember that mormodes show a preference in nature to dead or rotting wood and use it if available. Suspending or hanging the plants helps provide good air circulation.

References:

1.Pabst, G.F.J. An illustrated key to the species of genus Mormodes Lindl.; 1982 Orquideologia 15 pp. 173-178 2. Monnier, Gene, Sexual Polymorphism in the genus Mormodes, 1992 South Florida Orchidist pp. 180-184 Also see the sections on Mormodes in the standard orchid encyclopedias, and also the Icones series.

Source:  http://www.aos.org/orchids/orchids-a-to-z/letter-m/mormodes.aspx

 

Mormodes orchids, sometimes called "Goblin Orchids", are relatives of Catasetum. The flowers are asymmetrical, with the lip twisted to the side; breeders try to minimize this, but it's an inherent characteristic of the genus. Like related genera, these epiphytes have large, thick pseudobulbs covered with a bract of dead leaves, and with a fan of leaves distributed along their length. Not long after flowering, the plants drop their leaves in preparation for a dry season, and should not be watered until growth resumes unless the pseudobulbs shrivel a lot.

When the plants emerge from their dry rest, growth is very rapid; they need to be watered a lot at this time, and fertilized copiously too. After the new growth matures, flower stems will emerge from above one or more of the leaves, usually the lower or middle ones, and the plant will bloom. Some species can produce unisexual flowers that are either male or female but not both; such flowers look different from the usual bisexual flowers, and this behavior is influenced by lighting levels among other factors.

After flowering the leaves will drop and the plant enters its dry rest; it will easily rot if watered too much during this period. The best time to repot these orchids is just as they come out of their rest, as there's lots of root growth at this time. It's also a good time to divide the plant; most commonly people leave one pseudobulb in each pot. Clay pots are most common, as the pseudobulbs can be top-heavy and cause the plant to tip over. The best potting mixes are sphagnum moss and fine fir bark.

They seem to do best with high lighting, about 3000 footcandles, similar to a Cattleya, but will also adapt successfully to lighting levels as low as 1000 footcandles, similar to Phalaenopsis.

Warm temperatures, 75-85°F (24-29C), are preferred. Temperatures should cool off by 10-15°F (6-8C) at night.

They like humidity of 50-70%.

Source:  http://www.orchid-care-tips.com/mormodes.html

 

 

Mormodes (Morm.): This genus is composed of over 70 species, epiphytes found especially in lower tropical forests and growing on the rotten parts of trees or fallen branches and on tree trunks. The inflorescence is produced from about the middle of fleshy pseudobulbs once the new growth matures after the dry season.

This interesting genus of small to moderately sized plants produces fragrant flowers on upright racemes. At times identified as 'the flying swallow', 'the fairy' or the 'goblin' orchid, its flowers are asymmetrical with the lip twisted to the side. Its 'perfect' flowers have both male and female segments. Some species can produce unisexual flowers that have a different appearance from the usual bisexual flowers.

Mormodes have a reputation for being more difficult to grow and are the most susceptible to rot. Great care is needed to follow the regimen of ceasing watering during the dry period and resuming only after the plant has come out of its rest and when the new growth is sufficiently developed. Clay pots are often preferred to prevent tipping over, each pot usually including only one top heavy pseudobulb in a mix of sphagnum moss and fine fir bark.

Mormodes appear to do best at lighting levels as low as 1000 footcandles, similar to Phalaenopsis. Warm day temperatures of 75-85 F (24-29 C) are preferred with a cooling down at night by 10-15 F (6-8 C). Humidity needs to be kept fairly high at 50-70%. Mormodes hybridized with Catasetums can deepen colours to almost black as witnessed in Catamodes Black Magic (Catasetum Orchidglade x Mormodes sinuata). But note the wide colour variations that are often produced.  

Source:  https://catasetinaecanada.weebly.com/mormodes-morm-natural.html

 

Navigation Tip:  Additional information can be discovered by following the links below in bold text.

 

MORMODIA (2)

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The Mormodia

 
Image Left:  Mormodia [Mo.] Lime Tiger ‘SVO’ AM/AOS. Photo courtesy of Fred Clarke, Sunset Valley Orchids.

 

 

Mormodia is an artificial genus produced by breeding Clowesia with Mormodes. This group of orchids is again an interesting breeding combination producing multiple flowers, vigorous growth and the possibility of flowering two to three times a year. Typically, their now trigger-less flowers have a flower life that is longer than for pure Catasetums.

 

Mormodia are heavy feeders during their growing period but a dry rest period of differing lengths according to species is needed after flowering, specifically, once the plants start to drop leaves. Water is gradually reduced, then withheld. If at all, water sparingly only to prevent pseudobulbs from shrinking too much. Once new growth reaches 4 inches and new roots reach 2 or more inches long, watering is begun, with normal abundant watering taking place once the potting mix again approaches dryness. Fertilize well during the active growing season as the plant does not get a chance to be fertilized during its dry rest period. Mormodia like humidity of 50-70% with warm day temperatures of 75-80 F (24-27 C) dropping 10-15 F (6-8 C) at night. Repot just as new growth is beginning at the end of the dry rest.

 

Catasetinae Canada - Your Catasetinae Orchid Connection!

Mormodia (Clowesia x Mormodes) AOS Awards This information is for reference only and is not to be considered an official source.

 

When Mormodes is combined with Clowesia, the easy growing Mormodia is created.  The vast majority of the Mormodias have been made with the small flowered Clowesias, so they have inherited many of their delightful characteristics. Most Mormodias are small flowered, fragrant, winter bloomers that bloom from small clumping pseudobulbs. Sound familiar? They grow and bloom very similarly to their Clowesia parents. The Mormodes is used to vary and intensify the coloration of the flowers, and thankfully does not tend to impart its oddly shaped flowers to its progeny. Repot and grow a Mormodia as you would a Clowesia, trying to keep the multiple pseudobulbs together in the pot for a more spectacular winter show.  Source:  St. Augustine Orchid Society (Catasetums and Their Kin)

 

Navigation Tip:  Click on the title of the orchid you wish to explore.  If the orchid is registered, it's name will appear in bold text.  If unregistered, it is in italics text containing the name of both parents.

Sunset Valley Orchids 2019 Spring Newsletter

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